Archaic Adverbs in English Legal Texts

The use of archaic forms of language such as archaic adverbs also belongs to the characteristics of English legal texts. “Here-, there- and where- words persist in modern legal usage largely as a consequence of legal tradition rather than usefulness” (Haigh, 2009:36). Here are several examples concerning the use of archaic adverbs in legal texts and their translation into Indonesian.

Hereby (dengan ini) means ‘by this means; as a result of this’.

For example:

‘The parties hereby declare….’

‘Para pihak dengan ini menyatakan….’

‘The First Party hereby agrees to sell to the Second Party.’

‘Pihak Pertama dengan ini setuju untuk menjual kepada Pihak Kedua.’

Herein (dalam dokumen ini/dalam hal ini) means ‘in this document or matter’.

For example:

‘The terms referred to herein….’

‘Ketentuan-ketentuan yang diacu dalam dokumen ini…’

Hereinabove (di atas) means ‘previously in this document or matter’.

For example:

‘the products hereinabove described’.

‘produk-produk yang diuraikan di atas.’

 

Hereinafter (selanjutnya) means ‘later referred to in this matter or document’.

For example:

Hereinafter referred to as the Company’.

Selanjutnya disebut sebagai Perusahaan’.

Hereinafter referred to as the First Party.’

Selanjutnya disebut sebagai Pihak Kedua.’

 

Hereof (dalam hal/dokumen ini) means ‘of this matter or document’.

For example:

‘The parties hereof….’

‘Para pihak dalam hal ini….’

 

Hereto (dalam/pada dokumen/hal ini) means ‘to this place or to this matter or document’.

For example:

‘The ownership over the land is evidenced by the certificated attached hereto.’

‘Kepemilikan tanah tersebut dibuktikan dengan sertifikat yang terlampir dalam dokumen ini.’

Herewith (bersama dengan surat/dokumen ini) means ‘with this letter or document’.

For example:

‘I enclose herewith the plan’.

Bersama dengan surat/dokumen ini, saya lampirkan rencana tersebut’.

Thereof (dalam/dari itu) means ‘of the thing just mentioned’.

For example:

‘The contract was signed on 1 May 1999. The parties thereof . . .’

“Kontrak itu ditandatangani tanggal 1 Mei 1999. Para Pihak yang terlibat dalam perjanjian itu…’

 

Therein (di dalamnya) means ‘in that place, document or respect’.

For example:

‘The parties shall refer to the contract dated 1 May 1999. It is agreed therein that . . .’

‘Para pihak akan berpedoman pada kontrak tanggal 1 Mei 1999. Disetujui di dalamnnya bahwa….’

‘Seluruh bumi, air dan ruang angkasa, termasuk kekayaan alam yang terkandung di dalamnya dalam wilayah Republik Indonesia sebagai karunia Tuhan Yang Maha Esa adalah bumi, air dan ruang angkasa bangsa Indonesia dan merupakan kekayaan nasional.’

‘The entire earth, water and airspace, including the natural resources contained therein, in the territory of the Republic of Indonesia as the gifts of God Almighty are the earth, water and airspace of die Indonesian nation and constitute the wealth of the nation.’

Whereof (dari/dari mana) means ‘of what or of which’.

For example:

‘the Company one of the directors whereof is a foreign national’.

‘Perusahaan itu salah satu dari para direkturnya adalah warga negara asing’.

Reference:

Haigh, Rupert. 2009. Legal English (Second Edition). New York: Routledge-Cavendish

Quoted, summarized and translated into Indonesian by Luh Windiari

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