Phrases in Business Contracts and Their Translation in Indonesian

Phrases in Business Contracts and Their Translation in Indonesian

English is a rich and diverse language with complex grammar and many synonyms as a result of the multiplicity of linguistic influences (Haigh, 2009: 1).

The apparently peculiar structures, insufficient use of punctuation, unusual pronouns, unusual set phrases and a larger number of difficult words and phrases all together make English legal language sometimes difficult to understand.

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Here are some examples of standard phrases that are commonly encountered in business contracts based on British or American drafting standards, quoted from Rupert Haigh’s Legal English (second edition). The translation into Indonesian of each phrase is typed in blue and italic words.

Aggregate amount. An amount calculated by combining different items.

Jumlah keseluruhan

Annexed hereto. Attached to this document.

Terlampir/dilampirkan pada dokumen ini

Arising out of. Resulting from.

Diakibatkan oleh/terjadi akibat

As contemplated by this agreement. As intended by this agreement.

Sebagaimana dimaksud dalam perjanjian ini

As hereinafter defined. As defined later in the contract. These words alert the reader to the likelihood that the contract contains a definitions section in which the words ‘the Territory’ will be given a defined meaning for the purposes of the contract.

Sebagaimana didefinisikan selanjutnya

As per . . . In accordance with . . .

Sesuai dengan

At any time after the signature of this Agreement. Ever. The obligation is not time-limited.

Kapan pun setelah penandatanganan Perjanjian ini

Bear the costs of. Be responsible for paying the costs of.

Menanggung biaya dari

By reason of. Because of.

Karena/Dikarenakan oleh

Capacity to enter into and perform. Legal right to sign a contract so that it becomes legally enforceable and carry out the obligations it contains.

Hak untuk menerima/menandatangani dan melaksanakan suatu perjanjian

Circumstances beyond reasonable control. Circumstances that the party could not be expected to have any control over.

Keadaan-keadaan di luar kendali yang wajar

Collectively referred to herein. Referred to as a group of things in this contract.

Secara bersama-sama disebut di sini

Discharge of contract/liability/obligation. The termination of a contract/ liability or obligation, usually by performance.

Penyelesaian perjanjian/tanggung jawab/kewajiban

During the currency of this Agreement. During the period of this contract.

Selama jangka waktu Perjanjian ini

Engaged in the business of. Involved in the business of.

Bergerak dalam usaha/di bidang

Enters into this agreement. Accepts, signs this contract.

Menerima, menandatangi perjanjian ini

Except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Unless there is a clear statement to the contrary in some part of the contract.

Kecuali secara tegas ditentukan dalam Perjanjian ini

Execution date. The date on which a contract is signed.

Tanggal penandatanganan kontrak/perjanjian

Execution of documents. The signature of documents so that they become legally enforceable.

Penandatanganan dokumen sehingga dokumen tersebut memiliki kekuatan hukum.

Exhibits attached/annexed hereto. Particular relevant documents attached to an affidavit or statement as ‘exhibits’.

Bukti terlampir/terlampir di

Expiration of a time-period/limitation. When a time period/limitation has come to an end or run out.

Berakhirnya jangka waktu/batas waktu

Failure to perform . . . Failure to do something that was agreed to be done in the contract.

Kegagalan untuk menjalankan/melaksanakan

Finally settled by arbitration. Resolved by arbitration with no possibility of taking the dispute further in the event that one of the parties does not like the outcome.

Akhirnya diselesaikan melalui arbitrase

From the date hereof. From the date this contract is signed.

Terhitung sejak tanggal penandatanganan perjanjian ini

Give and execute all necessary consents. Provide all agreements that are required and sign and do all things necessary to ensure that they are legally enforceable.

Memberi, menandatangani dan melaksanakan semua persetujuan yang diperlukan

Incorporated herein. Contained in this contract or to be treated by the parties as contained in the contract.

Tercantum di sini

Incur expenses/fees. To run up or make oneself liable to pay expenses or fees.

Memikul beban/biaya

In lieu of. Instead of.

Sebagai pengganti

In respect of/in respect thereof. Concerning.

Mengenai/berkenaan dengan

In satisfaction of debts. In payment of debts.

Dalam pembayaran/pelunasan utang

Instrument in writing. A formal written legal document.

Dokumen hukum tertulis yang resmi

In witness whereof. ‘To confirm my agreement to the terms of this contract’.

Untuk menegaskan persetujuan saya terhadap ketentuan perjanjian ini

Legally binding. Legally enforceable.

Mengikat secara hukum

Make good. Repair, replace or renew something.

Memperbaiki, mengganti atau memperbaharui sesuatu

Mutual consent. Both parties agree (to a certain proposition).

Kesepakatan bersama

Mutual covenants and agreements. Things both parties have agreed in the contract.

Kesepakatan dan perjanjian bersama



Haigh, Rupert. 2009. Legal English (Second Edition). New York: Routledge-Cavendish.


Summarized, Quoted and Translated by Luh Windiari

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