English is a rich and diverse language with complex grammar and many synonyms as a result of the multiplicity of linguistic influences (Haigh, 2009: 1).
The apparently peculiar structures, insufficient use of punctuation, unusual pronouns, unusual set phrases and a larger number of difficult words and phrases all together make English legal language sometimes difficult to understand.
Here are some examples of standard phrases that are commonly encountered in business contracts based on British or American drafting standards, quoted from Rupert Haigh’s Legal English (second edition). The translation into Indonesian of each phrase is typed in blue and italic words.
Aggregate amount. An amount calculated by combining different items.
Annexed hereto. Attached to this document.
Terlampir/dilampirkan pada dokumen ini
Arising out of. Resulting from.
Diakibatkan oleh/terjadi akibat
As contemplated by this agreement. As intended by this agreement.
Sebagaimana dimaksud dalam perjanjian ini
As hereinafter defined. As defined later in the contract. These words alert the reader to the likelihood that the contract contains a definitions section in which the words ‘the Territory’ will be given a defined meaning for the purposes of the contract.
Sebagaimana didefinisikan selanjutnya
As per . . . In accordance with . . .
At any time after the signature of this Agreement. Ever. The obligation is not time-limited.
Kapan pun setelah penandatanganan Perjanjian ini
Bear the costs of. Be responsible for paying the costs of.
Menanggung biaya dari
By reason of. Because of.
Capacity to enter into and perform. Legal right to sign a contract so that it becomes legally enforceable and carry out the obligations it contains.
Hak untuk menerima/menandatangani dan melaksanakan suatu perjanjian
Circumstances beyond reasonable control. Circumstances that the party could not be expected to have any control over.
Keadaan-keadaan di luar kendali yang wajar
Collectively referred to herein. Referred to as a group of things in this contract.
Secara bersama-sama disebut di sini
Discharge of contract/liability/obligation. The termination of a contract/ liability or obligation, usually by performance.
Penyelesaian perjanjian/tanggung jawab/kewajiban
During the currency of this Agreement. During the period of this contract.
Selama jangka waktu Perjanjian ini
Engaged in the business of. Involved in the business of.
Bergerak dalam usaha/di bidang
Enters into this agreement. Accepts, signs this contract.
Menerima, menandatangi perjanjian ini
Except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Unless there is a clear statement to the contrary in some part of the contract.
Kecuali secara tegas ditentukan dalam Perjanjian ini
Execution date. The date on which a contract is signed.
Tanggal penandatanganan kontrak/perjanjian
Execution of documents. The signature of documents so that they become legally enforceable.
Penandatanganan dokumen sehingga dokumen tersebut memiliki kekuatan hukum.
Exhibits attached/annexed hereto. Particular relevant documents attached to an affidavit or statement as ‘exhibits’.
Bukti terlampir/terlampir di
Expiration of a time-period/limitation. When a time period/limitation has come to an end or run out.
Berakhirnya jangka waktu/batas waktu
Failure to perform . . . Failure to do something that was agreed to be done in the contract.
Kegagalan untuk menjalankan/melaksanakan
Finally settled by arbitration. Resolved by arbitration with no possibility of taking the dispute further in the event that one of the parties does not like the outcome.
Akhirnya diselesaikan melalui arbitrase
From the date hereof. From the date this contract is signed.
Terhitung sejak tanggal penandatanganan perjanjian ini
Give and execute all necessary consents. Provide all agreements that are required and sign and do all things necessary to ensure that they are legally enforceable.
Memberi, menandatangani dan melaksanakan semua persetujuan yang diperlukan
Incorporated herein. Contained in this contract or to be treated by the parties as contained in the contract.
Tercantum di sini
Incur expenses/fees. To run up or make oneself liable to pay expenses or fees.
In lieu of. Instead of.
In respect of/in respect thereof. Concerning.
In satisfaction of debts. In payment of debts.
Dalam pembayaran/pelunasan utang
Instrument in writing. A formal written legal document.
Dokumen hukum tertulis yang resmi
In witness whereof. ‘To confirm my agreement to the terms of this contract’.
Untuk menegaskan persetujuan saya terhadap ketentuan perjanjian ini
Legally binding. Legally enforceable.
Mengikat secara hukum
Make good. Repair, replace or renew something.
Memperbaiki, mengganti atau memperbaharui sesuatu
Mutual consent. Both parties agree (to a certain proposition).
Mutual covenants and agreements. Things both parties have agreed in the contract.
Kesepakatan dan perjanjian bersama
Haigh, Rupert. 2009. Legal English (Second Edition). New York: Routledge-Cavendish.
Summarized, Quoted and Translated by Luh Windiari